Trusted Domain users to RDP session

Can users from a Trusted Domain authenticate on a Remote Desktop connection in a different, trusting domain? Can it be done? Yes.

So, after some painful back and forth, it can be done, but its not totally secure, and it can be quite the hassle.

  1. Requires Two-Way domain trust, which is not as secure as a one-way, limited trust,
  2. The RDP broker must be able to talk to the Trusted DC and the Trusted DC must be able to talk to the Trusting RDP broker as well as the Trusting DC
  3. Domain Local group on the Trusting domain that has a group from the Trusted domain as a member.
  4. NPS on the Gateway must be set to allow the Trusted domain user group. (May not be required on environments without a gateway)

Assuming you can set up a Two-Way domain trust – maybe even set up as Select – so, not covering that here. On the Trusting domain (the one with the RDP server), you will need to set up a Domain Local security group:

That has the Trusted domain’s group as a member:

On the broker/gateway, in NPS, right click on the NPS (local) and if Register server in Active Directory is bold, click it to register in active directory.

In the Network Policies, RDG_CAP_AllUsers, Conditions, User Groups, you need to add the Trusted domain’s user group and the domain local group (just in case).

In the collection(s), you can add the Domain Local group, or groups, to the User Groups assigned to that collection:

Now, users in the group from the Trusted domain, who are in the Domain Local group, can authenticate to an RDP session in the Trusting domain, as long as the firewall or VPN, etc allows the RDP connection broker to reach the Trusted DC and vice versa.

To sum up:

  • Two-Way Domain Trust: Establish a two-way domain trust between the trusting and trusted domains. This facilitates communication between the RDP broker/gateway and the trusted domain’s domain controller.
  • Communication Channels: Ensure that communication channels are open bidirectionally between the RDP broker/gateway and the Trusted DC, as well as between the Trusted DC and the Trusting RDP broker and DC. Verify there are no network restrictions impeding this communication.
  • Domain Local Group Creation: Create a Domain Local group on the Trusting domain, adding a group from the Trusted domain as a member. This allows users from the Trusted domain to be granted access permissions within the Trusting domain.
  • NPS Configuration: In the Network Policy Server (NPS) on the RDP broker/gateway:
    • Register the server in Active Directory.
    • Configure the RDG_CAP_AllUsers network policy:
      • In Conditions, under User Groups, add the Trusted domain’s user group and the Domain Local group.
      • In collections, assign the Domain Local group(s) to the User Groups associated with the collection.
  • Active Directory Registration: Ensure the RDP broker/gateway is properly registered in Active Directory, which is vital for its integration with NPS.
  • Firewall/VPN Configuration: Confirm that firewall or VPN settings allow the RDP connection broker to communicate with the Trusted DC and vice versa. This ensures seamless authentication for Trusted domain users accessing RDP sessions in the Trusting domain.

By meticulously following these steps, users from the Trusted domain who are members of the Domain Local group can successfully authenticate to RDP sessions in the Trusting domain. However, it’s crucial to monitor and maintain the setup’s security to mitigate potential risks.

Helpful Group Policy Query

So, have you ever been tasked with moving file shares or printer shares to a new server? How enjoyable is it combing through Group Policy to find where the old server name is used? Yeah, its not.

Powershell to the Rescue! The below script will look for any text within all the group policies and let you know which ones the text is found in. A server name is the most obvious thing to look for, but it could be a user name or a share name, etc.

# Get the string to search for
$searchString = Read-Host -Prompt "Enter the string to search for in GPOs"

# Set the domain to search for GPOs
$DomainName = $env:USERDNSDOMAIN

# Check if Group Policy module is available, import if not
if (-not (Get-Module -Name GroupPolicy -ListAvailable)) {
    Import-Module GroupPolicy -ErrorAction Stop

# Find all GPOs in the current domain
Write-Host "Finding all the GPOs in $DomainName"

try {
    $allGposInDomain = Get-GPO -All -Domain $DomainName -ErrorAction Stop
} catch {
    Write-Host "Error: Failed to retrieve GPOs. $_" -ForegroundColor Red

$matchedGPOs = @()

# Search through each GPO's XML for the specified string
Write-Host "Starting search..."
foreach ($gpo in $allGposInDomain) {
    try {
        $report = Get-GPOReport -Guid $gpo.Id -ReportType Xml -ErrorAction Stop
    } catch {
        Write-Host "Error: Failed to retrieve report for $($gpo.DisplayName). $_" -ForegroundColor Yellow
    if ($report -match $searchString) {
        Write-Host "Match found in: $($gpo.DisplayName)" -ForegroundColor Green
        $matchedGPOs += $gpo.DisplayName
    } else {
        Write-Host "No match in: $($gpo.DisplayName)"

# Display results
Write-Host "`nResults:`n**************" -ForegroundColor Yellow
foreach ($match in $matchedGPOs) {
    Write-Host "Match found in: $($match)" -ForegroundColor Green

Looping in Labtech (Connectwise Automate)

I’ve been looking for this article on several occasions, and there it was, in LinkedIn! Re-posting here….

So, you want to do a loop in Labtech.  No problem – as long as you keep a few things in mind.

First, you have to follow the logic!  Use script notes to let yourself know what you want to accomplish.  Also, you need to use Labels and Script GoTo to create the loop. Labels are Script Notes with “:” preceding the label.  Short, simple labels are best.  Know where you want to exit the loop and when to continue the loop.

In the above image, we are taking a “String of Stuff” and splitting it, then parsing the string for each start and taking two characters after that to be a Percent Free.

Note the “SET: @Counter@ = @Counter@ – 1” entry.  This is a Script Math line.  It is, however, not written as shown.  If you put @Counter@ in the variable section, it will use the Value of the variable previously set, so you may wind up with @4@ set to ‘3’ if you try this. 

Despite what the description says, it does matter whether you use @ or not!

In order to do a Loop successfully, you need to make sure that the “Variable” section of each Variable Set, Script Math, etc. that may change value in the loop (or otherwise) does not have the ‘@’ with the variable name.

Users can’t see on RDP Session

Sometimes we have a larger resolution on an RDP server and users complain they can’t see – or, just a couple users complain and everyone else thinks it is fine. Here are some methods to Magnify an RDP session, Make Text Bigger on the RDP session or, increase the scaling directly from the Remote Desktop Session’s .RDP file.

Using Magnifier on RDP session

First, lets change the settings on Magnifier, because it starts at 100% increments and that can just look ugly.  Start button and type “mag” should bring up the following.

There is a drop-down to pick the zoom level increments – pick 10% to start with

The directions on this page tell you how to use it.  (Ignore make everything bigger)

You can now turn on the Magnifier by pressing the Windows logo key on the keyboard, then the Plus Sign.

To turn the magnifier off, hold down the Windows Logo key and press ESC key.

Adjust Font Size on Remote Desktop session:

Click start or the Search in the lower left corner of the screen and type “Make Text Size Bigger” (may not have to type the whole thing)

Click on the Make text size bigger (system settings)

Drag the slider bar to the size you need, then click Apply

Adjusting the Text of the .RDP file

This is the last effort if neither of the above work properly, because it involves editing the .RDP using Notepad++ – or Notepad, if you don’t like better programs.

You will need the .RDP file you use to connect – or you can Save As on the Remote Desktop and save that to the local desktop.

You will need to right click and Edit with Notepad++, or select Open With – then choose Notepad

You may need to choose another app, then More Apps and scroll down to find Notepad, then click OK.

When open in Notepad++ (or Notepad), you will see a lot of text.  Scroll down to the bottom.

Add the following at the bottom:

You can adjust these numbers, but I think 125% is good to start with.

While this is open, we can also make some performance improvements! Let’s find :

redirectsmartcards:i:1 and change the 1 to a 0 (zero). So it would be:


And you may want to change the session bpp:i: – I suggest:
session bpp:i:24

Now, save and close Notepad++ (or Notepad).

Use the .RDP file to connect to your session.

Stop and Prevent Office apps from Saving to One Drive by Default

Are you troubled by the way Office M365 apps – Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook – all save to One Drive by default, because that can get pretty annoying.

Fortunately, preventing this behavior is rather simple – and not as extreme as unlinking and uninstalling One Drive – which you may be using for other reasons (or not).

Open Word, then click on Options in the lower left corner

Click on Save in the left menu, then check the Save to Computer by default.

This sets the option for the whole office suite of products, though, I would double check the next time you use them.

Edit Settings for RDP file in RDWeb

RDP has a lot of issues, one is how to get the users to use the right settings for the .RDP file they use to connect. In the past, I’ve downloaded the .rdp from RDWeb, edited it and distributed the file to end-users manually – via email or group policy to put it on their desktop, etc. That was getting old, so now, I have found a way to manage it via the Registry on the RDP connection broker.

One thing I’d like to mention before getting into the code is another registry entry : Computer\HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Terminal Server\CentralPublishedResources\PublishedFarms\{TheNameOfYourCollection}\RemoteDesktops\{YourRemoteDesktop} and the entry ShowInPortal – set that to 1 to show, 0 to hide (which 0 is the default).

Now, on to editing the RDPFileContents – oh, you saw that in the image above? Same location in the registry. This entry has the whole RDP file contents in it – new lines and all – that is downloaded from RDWeb links. Sure, you could (carefully) edit the line in the registry – but if you accidentally take out a new line between entries, you can’t put it back in! So, the better way to do it is to download the file from RDWeb, Edit with Notepad++ (or similar, I guess plain ole notepad would work as well).

You can now edit the file – I suggest Session bpp:i:24, redirectsmartcards:i:0 (This can clear up performance issues!), and drivestoredirect:s:C:\; (note the ; after) at a minimum. See the whole list of settings at Microsoft. ( Note the Remote Desktop Services column )

Once you have the settings down – and have tested using the file you just edited – you can use the following Powershell (edit the variables, of course…) Oh, you do need to run this on your RD Web Server, if it is separate from your Gateway, Connection Broker, Host, etc., to set the .rdp file configuration in your RDWeb registry. For RemoteApps, change the RemoteDesktops to RemoteApps in the registry path.

##Powershell to create a multi-line registry entry from a file
#_RDP registry location is : Computer\HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Terminal Server\CentralPublishedResources\PublishedFarms
##_Gather the Variable Information
#_The file to import the information from
$FileToImport = "\\Path\to\your\saved\RDP-Desktop.rdp"
#_Set the entry type - for RDPFileContents, this is String.
$RegType = "string"  # For New-ItemProperty, but not used in Set-ItemProperty
#_Set the path to the Key (Folder) level of registry.
$RegPath = "HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Terminal Server\Test\PublishedFarms\{YourRDPName}\RemoteDesktops\{YourRDPName}"
#_The Registry entry to Edit
$RegEntry = "RDPFileContents"
#_Import the file contents to a variable
$rContents = [system.string]::Join("`r`n",(Get-Content -Path $FileToImport))
# Assign the value
Set-ItemProperty -Path $RegPath -Name $RegEntry -Value $rContents -Force

Now your settings will be downloaded from RDWeb! No more distributing .rdp files with customized settings! With that set up and all user workstations set to not use UDP for RDP sessions, things should run smoothly!

Log off Idle User with Quser and Powershell

I recently had a reason to need a solution to log off idle users from a workstation. “Group Policy!” was my first thought – but, no, the group policy idle logoff is only for Remote Desktop Sessions. Looking online, there were a lot of posts pointing this out – and decrying why Microsoft is so stupid as to not have this available. Its 2022 for crying out loud! I pieced together a script to log off idle users that actually works in a real company environment.

In my searching, however, I did find quser and powershell. You use quser, parse the output and log off idle users over an hour. Easy peasey, right? Nope. Not at all. For one thing, quser has some reality issues. ( I posted asking for help on sorting it out! )

The first thing about the quser output is how to properly put it in a good, powershell readable table. Some have suggested “convertfrom-string” – but that doesn’t handle the “Idle Time” and “Logon Time” very well, due to spaces.

The ‘original’ used :
Select-Object -Skip 1 | ForEach-Object {($_ -replace '\s{2,}', ',').Trim()} | ConvertFrom-Csv -Header $Header |

But that sometimes had issues as well, because if another user is logged on (switch user), the Session is empty, so you have a missing column and everything after ‘session’ gets shifted left by one.

Olaf (on the reality issues link above) helped me see how to use substring() to get what will work most, if not all, of the time. I haven’t seen an issue for it. I guess I may have been just too lazy to count it out. Either, way, it works.

The next thing is that “Idle Time” outputs a lot of different things – it can be ‘none’ or a ‘.’ or a measure of time ‘5’ minutes, ’14:54′ hours and minutes, or ‘1+13:33’ days plus hours and minutes. So, you have to, in a real-world situation, make allowances for such output and do your best to If/Then for all iterations.

The next thing is, that in Windows 10 and below, “Idle Time” doesn’t seem to actually be the individual user’s Idle Time. In testing, it seems more like ‘the time since any user last had a log on event.’
UserName SessionName ID State IdleTime
-------- ----------- -- ----- --------
bkearan console 1 Active 1+03:57
bktest 2 Disc 1+03:57

See how both users have the same ‘Idle Time?’ Even the Active user has an idle time. Now, in Windows 11, it appears to be closer to the user’s idle time (at least on my home, pc – my company laptop is 11, but has the same issue as 10) – but corporate environments haven’t all got to Windows 11. Some places still have Windows 7, but I digress. In Windows 10, you can’t use only idle time to log off a user – as it will log off an active user. … Yes, I got logged off as I was testing this theory. I clicked run in PowerShell ISE and got logged off immediately.

Now for the final kicker – a user is “Active” as long as they are the primary account logged on. Yep, the last logged on user NEVER goes to an Idle state. So far, I haven’t found a way around this last issue. However, if another user logs on after an hour – the Idle Time counter resets and the first user won’t be logged off for another hour.

I have the script set to run as a scheduled task on boot of the computers that need to log off users (so as not to get bogged down with multiple user sessions).

And I just added the Days as I was writing this. Just so much to parse! My Windows 11 laptop has been running the script for 3 days, 4 hours and 41 minutes – and I haven’t been near the laptop for two days, but my logged on user is still showing “Active.”

Then, I started looking for how to get the actual Idle time of the whole system. Now, I have added, as I write this, code to detect the time the system has not received any input whatsoever. So, here is the code that will log off ‘disconnected’ users and even the Console user if the whole system has been idle for over an hour: — and of course that doesn’t work. The Idle Console piece doesn’t get any input when tracking as the SYSTEM account – so logs off everything after an hour – even new logons. So I had to break it up into TWO scripts. The first script (below) is the one to run as a scheduled task on startup, run as SYSTEM.

# Complied from pieces of code and additions by Bobby Kearan with inspiration from
# and Thanks to Olaf ( for helping with parsing the output of quser properly

function Log-Message {
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]

    $currentSize = 0
    if (Test-Path $Logfile) {
        $currentSize = (Get-Item $Logfile).length/1MB

    if ($currentSize -gt 10) {
        if (Test-Path $oldLogFile) {
            Remove-Item $oldLogFile -Force
        Move-Item $Logfile $oldLogFile -Force

    Add-Content -Path $Logfile -Value ("[" + (Get-Date) + "] " + $Message)

function Get-QUserInfo {
    param (
        $ComputerName = $env:COMPUTERNAME

        $Header = 'UserName','SessionName','ID','State','IdleTime','LogonTime'
        $No_Connection = '-- No Connection --'

        foreach ($CN_Item in $ComputerName)
            if (Test-Connection -ComputerName $CN_Item -Count 1 -Quiet)
                $QuserOutput = quser /server:$CN_Item
                $QuserOutput -split "`n" | Select-Object -Skip 3
                $QuserOutput | Select-Object -Skip 1 |
                    ForEach-Object {
						$IdleTime = $_.Substring(54, 11).trim()
						#Write-Host $IdleTime
						If (($IdleTime -eq 'none') -or ($IdleTime -eq '.') -or ($IdleTime -eq '$Null')) {
						$IdleTime = "Not Idle"
						#Write-Host "Testing Idle Time " $IdleTime "for the + sign"
						IF ($IdleTime -like '*+*') {
                        $IdleTime = $IdleTime.replace("+",":")
                        #Write-Host $IdleTime " was the Plus sign replaced + ? "
					If ($IdleTime -as [DateTime]) {
                        If ($IdleTime -match "\d\d\:\d\d"){
							#$IdleTime = [timespan]$IdleTime
							$Idleness = $IdleTime -split ":"
                        #Write-Host $Idleness.length
							If($Idleness.length -eq 2){
							$IdleTime = New-Object -TypeName PSObject
							$d = [ordered]@{Days=0;Hours=$Idleness[0];Minutes=$Idleness[1]}
							$IdleTime | Add-Member -NotePropertyMembers $d -TypeName Asset
                        Else {
							$IdleTime = New-Object -TypeName PSObject
							$d = [ordered]@{Days=$Idleness[0];Hours=$Idleness[1];Minutes=$Idleness[2]}
							$IdleTime | Add-Member -NotePropertyMembers $d -TypeName Asset
                        #Write-Host $Idleness[0] " = " $IdleTime.Hours
                        ELSE {
                          $IdleTime = New-TimeSpan -Start $IdleTime -End (Get-Date)
                          #Write-Host "IdleTime was a datetime-" $IdleTime
					   #Write-Host $IdleTime
						$final = $_.length - 65
						$Username = $_.Substring(1, 22).trim()
						UserName    = $_.Substring(1, 22).trim()
						SessionName = $_.Substring(23, 19).trim()
						ID          = $_.Substring(42, 3).trim()
						State       = $_.Substring(46, 8).trim()
						IdleTime    = $IdleTime
						LogonTime   = $_.Substring(65, $final).trim()
                    ComputerName = $CN_Item
                    UserName = $No_Connection
                    SessionName = $No_Connection
                    ID = $No_Connection
                    State = $No_Connection
                    IdleTime = $No_Connection
                    LogonTime = $No_Connection
            } # end >> foreach ($CN_Item in $ComputerName)
        } # end >> process {}

    end {}

    } # end >> function Get-QUserInfo

    #$Info = Get-QUserInfo -ComputerName localhost

    $Logfile = "c:\scripts\LogOff.log"
    $oldLogFile = "c:\scripts\Logoff.old.log"
    #Initalize Log file
    Log-Message "Log Start: " + (Get-Date)

    $state = "Active"
    while ($state -eq "Active") {
    $Info = Get-QUserInfo -ComputerName LocalHost
    foreach ($user in $Info) {
        if ($user.State.Trim() -ne "Active" -and $user.IdleTime.Hours -ge 1) {
            logoff $user.ID
            Log-Message "$($user.State) User $($user.UserName) has been idle $($user.IdleTime.Days) Days $($user.IdleTime.Hours) hours, $($user.IdleTime.Minutes) Minutes - Logged On Time = $($user.IdleTime)"
    Start-Sleep -Seconds 260

I did add a couple things after posting. That would be adding in self-cleaning Logging. Now, the second one, runs as a scheduled task as well, but on logon of any user, and it runs in the console session.

# Written by Bobby Kearan with inspiration and code from: 
# and, finally,
Add-Type @'
using System;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;

namespace PInvoke.Win32 {

    public static class UserInput {

        [DllImport("user32.dll", SetLastError=false)]
        private static extern bool GetLastInputInfo(ref LASTINPUTINFO plii);

        private struct LASTINPUTINFO {
            public uint cbSize;
            public int dwTime;

        public static DateTime LastInput {
            get {
                DateTime bootTime = DateTime.UtcNow.AddMilliseconds(-Environment.TickCount);
                DateTime lastInput = bootTime.AddMilliseconds(LastInputTicks);
                return lastInput;

        public static TimeSpan IdleTime {
            get {
                return DateTime.UtcNow.Subtract(LastInput);

        public static int LastInputTicks {
            get {
                LASTINPUTINFO lii = new LASTINPUTINFO();
                lii.cbSize = (uint)Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(LASTINPUTINFO));
                GetLastInputInfo(ref lii);
                return lii.dwTime;

function Log-Message {
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]

    $currentSize = 0
    if (Test-Path $Logfile) {
        $currentSize = (Get-Item $Logfile).length / 1MB

    if ($currentSize -gt 5) {
        if (Test-Path $oldLogFile) {
            Remove-Item $oldLogFile -Force
        Move-Item $Logfile $oldLogFile -Force

    Add-Content -Path $Logfile -Value ("[" + (Get-Date) + "] " + $Message)

$Logfile = "c:\scripts\LogOff-console.log"
$oldLogFile = "c:\scripts\Logoff-console.old.log"

Log-Message "Log Start"

$state = "Active"

while ($state -eq "Active") {
    $idleTime = [PInvoke.Win32.UserInput]::IdleTime

    if ($idleTime.Hours -ge 1) {
        $sessionid = (Get-Process -PID $pid).SessionID
        Log-Message "$env:USERNAME has been idle for $($idleTime.Hours) hours and $($idleTime.Minutes) minutes."
        logoff $sessionid

    Start-Sleep -Seconds 260

To assist with this, I wrote this powershell to create the scheduled tasks (mostly) – it launches task scheduler so you can check and verify.

# Check if the files are in C:\scripts
$scriptPath = "C:\scripts"
$files = @("Logoffonidle.ps1", "LogoffOnIdle_Console.ps1")

foreach ($file in $files) {
    if (-not (Test-Path "$scriptPath\$file")) {
        Write-Output "Error: $file is not present in $scriptPath"

# Create or Update scheduled tasks
$TaskSettings = New-ScheduledTaskSettingsSet -AllowStartIfOnBatteries -StartWhenAvailable -WakeToRun
$TaskSettings.ExecutionTimeLimit = 'PT0S'
$TaskSettings.Compatibility = 'win8'

$actionStartup = New-ScheduledTaskAction -Execute "powershell.exe" -Argument "-NoProfile -WindowStyle Hidden -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -File $scriptPath\Logoffonidle.ps1"
$triggerStartup = New-ScheduledTaskTrigger -AtStartup

$taskNameStartup = "LogOffOnIdleAtStartup"
if (Get-ScheduledTask -TaskName $taskNameStartup -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue) {
    Set-ScheduledTask -TaskName $taskNameStartup -Action $actionStartup -Trigger $triggerStartup -Settings $TaskSettings
} else {
    Register-ScheduledTask -Action $actionStartup -Trigger $triggerStartup -TaskName $taskNameStartup -User "SYSTEM" -RunLevel Highest -Settings $TaskSettings

$actionIdle = New-ScheduledTaskAction -Execute "powershell.exe" -Argument "-WindowStyle Hidden -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -File $scriptPath\LogoffOnIdle_Console.ps1"
$triggerIdle = New-ScheduledTaskTrigger -AtLogOn

$taskNameIdle = "LogOffOnIdleWhenUserIdle"
$principalIdle = New-ScheduledTaskPrincipal -UserId "NT AUTHORITY\INTERACTIVE" -RunLevel Limited
if (Get-ScheduledTask -TaskName $taskNameIdle -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue) {
    Set-ScheduledTask -TaskName $taskNameIdle -Action $actionIdle -Trigger $triggerIdle -Principal $principalIdle -Settings $TaskSettings
} else {
    # Register for any user that logs on
    Register-ScheduledTask -Action $actionIdle -Trigger $triggerIdle -TaskName $taskNameIdle -Principal $principalIdle -Settings $TaskSettings


This should be working for both disconnected and console sessions now.

Run the script and make sure it creates both Scheduled Tasks.

Open the LogOffOnIdleAtStartup scheduled task and make sure it is set the Configure For: to the latest system there is available

Now open the LogOffOnIdleWhenUserIdle scheduled task and make sure it is set for: to the latest system there is – AND  the User is set to Interactive (or “NT AUTHORITY\INTERACTIVE”) and Run Only when user is logged on.

Edit each task to Uncheck the Stop the task if it runs more than 3 days.  We don’t want these tasks to stop.

Run task as soon as possible after scheduled start is missed.  Make the other show changes as needed:

The script creates a log of every logoff event it does in c:\scripts\logoff.log

If you need to keep a system alive when important tasks are running, add to the top section of LogoffIdle:

# Important processes that should prevent logging off
$KeepAliveTasks = @("robocopy", "ping", "Syncing")

Then, adjust the While loop:

while ($state -eq "Active") {
    $idleTime = [PInvoke.Win32.UserInput]::IdleTime

    $importantProcessRunning = Get-Process | Where-Object {
        $_.Name -in $KeepAliveTasks -or 
        $KeepAliveTasks -contains $_.MainWindowTitle

    if ($idleTime.Hours -ge 1 -and (-not $importantProcessRunning)) {
        Log-Message "User $muser has been idle for $($idleTime.Hours) hours and $($idleTime.Minutes) minutes. Attempting logoff."
        # Trying a direct PowerShell approach for logoff
        $sessionid = (Get-Process -PID $pid).SessionID
        logoff $sessionid

    Start-Sleep -Seconds 260

DFSRMig stuck at Eliminating

Moving a client from Server 2008 to Server 2019 Domain Controller. Which means adding the 2019 server to the domain as a domain controller, promoting it, etc. But the first step is to do DFSRMig – migrate from FRS to DFSR for Active Directory.

DFSRMig – Run this on the old DC

1# To see what state DFS is in
DFSRMig /GetGlobalState

2# Start the migration to DFSR with
DFSRMig /SetGlobalState 1

3# To check on the migration progress
DFSRMig /GetMigrationState – This will take some time: Run this command until it is in a consistent state.

4# Next step is to Redirect
DFSRMig /SetGlobalState 2

5# When that process is complete (check using /GetMigrationState), move to 3
DFSRMig /SetGlobalState 3

The idea is to get to “Eliminated” state – so you can promote the 2019 server to a DC. Well, I found out that when you get it to “Eliminating” – just after running Set Global State 3 – you can go ahead and promote. However… the old DC might get stuck in eliminating.

Now, the interwebs have plenty of suggestions and those should work in most cases – not mine, but most. I was completely baffled… but was restarting the service and looking at event logs… and seeing “access denied” messages. Which was totally weird. I eventually put 7 and 10 together and got 42…

I opened ADSIEdit (as admin) and went to Domain Controllers, expanded those…

After NTFSR is eliminated…

And clicked on the Domain Controller names that was there and went to security… at first, nothing looked off… but eventually, I saw that somebody(!!) had set a Deny on the EVERYONE group so that nobody could delete anything under there – including the NTFSR (NTFRS?) folders! So, of course, it couldn’t eliminate it – access was, in fact, denied. I removed the deny from a couple ‘delete’ permissions and stopped the DFSR service and started it again – Boom! Eliminated!

Company Share Folders and Permissions

Sharing out company information is a very important thing to do right – who gets to see what and what can they do with it? That is why it is best to have a plan in place before beginning.

Plan to have the shares in one folder, on a data drive (not OS), preferably on a dedicated File Server (not a NAS, please). Name the folders something recognizable.

Company is the general share that everyone can access.

Executive is the share for Executives

Accounting is the share for the accounting department – payroll, billing, etc.

Home is a folder for each user’s Home Drive (As set up in Active Directory)

Departments is a top folder with department folders inside, each department folder shared out to it’s department security group.

Ah, yes – Security Groups. You will always want to assign permissions using security groups. It is a lot easier to manage adding users to security groups than going around digging through folders for which ones they need access to. If they need access, there should be a security group for that!

Now, how to map the folders? Group Policy. Put one group policy for each Security Group and which folders they need mapped.

Another very awesome tool for doing group policy is Item-Level Targeting. With this, you can use one policy with multiple items that go to different groups – such as printers, drive maps, etc.

On the Common Tab, Check the Item-level targeting box and click the targeting button…

Item Level Targeting

There are a LOT of options – even though I normally use only the Security Group option – you can get very specific.

Endless Options to target…
The most used (by me) Targeting…

So, if you are deploying dozens of printers or drive mappings – or software – use Item-Level targeting to control who or which pc gets what. It saves clutter in Group Policy management.

Migrated to DreamHost

So, after more than a decade at WebIntellects hosting, I had to call it quits – they just didn’t keep up with my website – WordPress based, but not very active – still, logging in to the CPanel even got laggy. Moved one site to DreamHost and it was a lot faster, more reliable and easier to manage.

Migration, however, was not as straight forward as they would have you believe. Here is the REAL story.

I’m going to assume you have a current website (wordpress) and just set up your account, domain and got wordpress installed at DreamHost. What now?

Stop. You have some information to gather first.

Start by getting your WordPress MySQL credentials… (1) Click on MySQL Databases, (2) scroll down to Database(s) on this server:

(3) Click on the Users Access ( after you copy down the user name! ) and then scroll down to the “Do you need to know user’s password? and click Show – copy it.

Now, go back to MySQL Databases and scroll to HOSTNAME – click on the phpMyAdmin – where you will use the credentials gathered above to log in….

It should auto populate the MySQL Hostname:

Scroll down until you find wp_users (or wp_somthin_users) and expand that table.

Copy the user_login name and click Edit to change the password :

Find user_pass and click the drop down to set it to MD5

Enter a new password and click GO (bottom right)

When you go back to look at it, it will be in a hex string, so make sure you know what the password is or you will have to change it again.

On your DreamHost, under Manage Websites, manage your site and Get Migration Key under WordPress

I already got the Key… 😀

Now you should have:
Dreamhost WordPress admin User name and Password
Migration Key
Current WordPress admin User name and Password.

Now, go to your current wordpress and log in as an admin.

Go to Plugins, Add New and search and install DreamHost Automated Migration.

Activate it.

It will ask you for the information gathered – put it all in and Begin Migration!

Once Migration is complete (15 minutes or more depending on your site size), you are not done. Now you need to point your domain’s DNS to DreamHost.

I use Cloudflare for my DNS, so I get the DNS settings from Manage Websites –> Manage –> DNS Records (under Domain)

Update appropriately – but you MUST have a and a record – or a and a record.

Once those are done, you need to turn on SSL…

Under Websites, click on Secure Certificates – then Add one to your website:

I went with the Free personal site SSL from Let’s Encrypt….

Once that order processes and is installed – you should see the Lock beside your website is green:

Now you should be able to see your new site (given fast DNS updates), though it may take a bit – 15 minutes or longer depending on your DNS’s TTL settings.

And Migration is complete – go in to word press and update plugins, check your Site Health, etc. Explore your page and make sure its all showing properly.

For References from DreamHost :